Tag Archives: verbs

French regular verbs – present subjunctive tense

French verbs

“I hate French!”

The subjunctive in French is generally used in the present tense after expressions such as ‘il faut que’ and some verbs that also take the word ‘que’ after them. These are generally the ones that express feelings or doubts (eg vouloir and craindre), especially when two parts of a sentence have different subjects, eg ‘I want her to be happy’ becomes ‘Je veux qu’elle soit contente’. Verbs ending in -er or -re have one set of endings, but  -ir verbs have another (shown here in red):

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donne

Tu donnes

Il/elle donne

Nous donnions

Vous donniez

Ils/elles donnent

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vende

Tu vendes

Il/elle vende

Nous vendions

Vous vendiez

Ils/elles vendent

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finisse

Tu finisses

Il/elle finisse

Nous finissions

Vous finissiez

Ils/elles finissent

Preceding Direct Objects in French

French verbs

“I hate French!”

 

Forming the perfect (or pluperfect) tense in French is sometimes made harder than necessary by what’s called a Preceding Direct Object (or PDO). The object of a sentence is whatever ‘suffers the action of the verb’, eg the nail in ‘he hit the nail on the head’. If the object is a pronoun and the perfect (or pluperfect) tense is being used, the French put it before the auxiliary rather than at the end of the sentence as in English, eg ‘il l‘a frappé’ or ‘he it has hit’!

You might think that’s bad enough, but the real problem is that the past participle has to agree in number and gender with the PDO, eg ‘il les a frappés‘ or ‘he’s hit them’.

When it comes to reflexive verbs, it gets even worse. By definition, every reflexive verb has a PDO, so that means you have to watch what you write when a female character is speaking, eg ‘Je me suis lavé’ for a boy, but ‘Je me suis lavée’ for a girl. Having said that, one of my male pupils once told me that the best way to get a good mark in his French prose was to tell a story in the first person and pretend to be a girl – that way, he’d get a tick every time he used a PDO!

French regular verbs – conditional tense

French verbs

“I hate French!”

The conditional tense in French is used to show that someone ‘would do’ or ‘would be doing’ something. All verbs end in -er, -re or -ir, and the endings are different (as shown here in red):

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donnerais

Tu donnerais

Il/elle donnerait

Nous donnerions

Vous donneriez

Ils/elles donneraient

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vendrais

Tu vendrais

Il/elle vendrait

Nous vendrions

Vous vendriez

Ils/elles vendraient

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finirais

Tu finirais

Il/elle finirait

Nous finirions

Vous finiriez

Ils/elles finiraient

French regular verbs – future tense

French verbs

“I hate French!”

There is only one future tense in French, and it’s used to show that someone ‘will do’ or ‘will be doing’ something. Verbs end in -er, -re or -ir, but the endings are the same (as shown here in red):

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donnerai

Tu donneras

Il/elle donnera

Nous donnerons

Vous donnerez

Ils/elles donneront

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vendrai

Tu vendras

Il/elle vendra

Nous vendrons

Vous vendrez

Ils/elles vendront

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finirai

Tu finiras

Il/elle finira

Nous finirons

Vous finirez

Ils/elles finiront

French regular verbs – past tense

French verbs

“I hate French!”

Here are the basic forms of French regular verbs in the past tense, which include the perfect (or passé composé), pluperfect, imperfect and past historic (or passé simple). All verbs end in -er, -re or -ir, and there are different endings for each that are shown here in red.

Perfect (or passé composé)

The perfect tense is used in formal written French to say someone ‘has done’ something, but they sometimes use it in conversation and casual writing in the same way we use the simple past tense (or ‘preterite’), eg ‘j’ai donné’ might mean ‘I gave’ rather than ‘I have given’ – you just need to look at the context to help you decide which is the right translation.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

J’ai donné
Tu as donné
Il/elle a donné
Nous avons donné
Vous avez donné
Ils/elles ont donné

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

J’ai vendu
Tu as vendu
Il/elle a vendu
Nous avons vendu
Vous avez vendu
Ils/elles ont vendu

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

J’ai fini
Tu as fini
Il/elle a fini
Nous avons fini
Vous avez fini
Ils/elles ont fini

Pluperfect

The pluperfect tense is used to say someone ‘had done’ something. This is common in story-writing when an event is described that happened before that particular moment in the story, eg ‘j’avais donné’ means ‘I had given’.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

J’avais donné
Tu avais donné
Il/elle avait donné
Nous avions donné
Vous aviez donné
Ils/elles avaient donné

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

J’avais vendu
Tu avais vendu
Il/elle avait vendu
Nous avions vendu
Vous aviez vendu
Ils/elles avaient vendu

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

J’avais fini
Tu avais fini
Il/elle avait fini
Nous avions fini
Vous aviez fini
Ils/elles avaient fini

Imperfect

The imperfect tense is used to say someone ‘was doing’ or ‘used to do’ something, eg ‘je donnais’ means ‘I was giving’ or ‘I used to give’.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donnais
Tu donnais
Il/elle donnait
Nous donnions
Vous donniez
Ils/elles donnaient

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vendais
Tu vendais
Il/elle vendait
Nous vendions
Vous vendiez
Ils/elles vendaient

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finissais
Tu finissais
Il/elle finissait
Nous finissions
Vous finissiez
Ils/elles finissaient

Past historic (or passé simple)

The past historic is the equivalent of the simple past tense (or preterite) in English and is used in novels and other formal writing to say someone ‘did’ something, eg ‘je donnai’ means ‘I gave’ or ‘I used to give’. It is never used in conversation, where it is replaced by the perfect tense.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donnais
Tu donnas
Il/elle donna
Nous donnâmes
Vous donnâtes
Ils/elles donnèrent

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vendis
Tu vendis
Il/elle vendit
Nous vendîmes
Vous vendîtes
Ils/elles vendirent

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finis
Tu finis
Il/elle finit
Nous finîmes
Vous finîtes
Ils/elles finirent

 

Common French verbs – present tense

French verbs

“I hate French!”

Language changes over time because people are lazy. They’d rather say something that’s easy than something that’s correct. That means the most common words change the most, and the verbs become ‘irregular’. In French, the ten most common verbs are ‘être’, ‘avoir’, ‘pouvoir’, ‘faire’, ‘mettre’, ‘dire’, ‘devoir’, ‘prendre’, ‘donner’ and ‘aller’, and they’re all irregular apart from ‘donner’. Here are their forms in the present tense.

Note: the irregular forms are shown in red.

Etre (to be)

Je suis
Tu es
Il/elle est
Nous sommes
Vous êtes
Ils/elles sont

Avoir (to have)

J’ai
Tu as
Il/elle as
Nous avons
Vous avez
Ils/elles ont

Pouvoir (to be able to, ‘can’)

Je peux
Tu peux
Il/elle peut
Nous pouvons
Vous pouvez
Ils/elles peuvent

Faire (to do, to make)

Je fais
Tu fais
Il/elle fait
Nous faisons
Vous faites
Ils/elles font

Mettre (to put)

Je mets
Tu mets
Il/elle met
Nous mettons
Vous mettez
Ils/elles mettent

Dire (to say, to tell)

Je dis
Tu dis
Il/elle dit
Nous disons
Vous disez
Ils/elles disent

Devoir (to have to, ‘must’)

Je dois
Tu dois
Il/elle doit
Nous devons
Vous devez
Ils/elles doivent

Prendre (to take)

Je prends
Tu prends
Il/elle prend
Nous prenons
Vous prenez
Ils/elles prennent

Aller (to go)

Je vais
Tu vas
Il/elle va
Nous allons
Vous allez
Ils/elles vont

French regular verbs – present tense

French verbs

“I hate French!”

Nobody likes French verbs – not even the French! – but I thought I’d start by listing the most basic forms of the regular verbs in the present tense. All French verbs end in -er, -re or -ir, and there are different endings for each that are shown here in red:

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donne
Tu donnes
Il/elle donne
Nous donnons
Vous donnez
Ils/elles donnent

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vends
Tu vends
Il/elle vend
Nous vendons
Vous vendez
Ils/elles vendent

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finis
Tu finis
Il/elle finit
Nous finissons
Vous finissez
Ils/elles finissent

If you’re learning French and have to memorise the present tense, it helps if you can spot the patterns:

  • The je, tu, il/elle and ils/elles forms all sound the same for -er and -re verbs (and the same is true of the je, tu and il/elle forms of -ir verbs)
  • The nous and vous forms always end in -ons and -ez (although -ir verbs have an extra -ss- in the middle)

People learn things in different ways, but the best way I’ve found is to make a recording on my phone and try to repeat the words at the same time as I listened to them on my headphones. I did a lot of acting at Oxford and in the Edinburgh Fringe, and that was the way I learned my lines. If I made a mistake or forgot something, the recording prompted me with the right words, and I could carry on repeating the exercise until I was word-perfect. It meant I could learn my lines any time, anywhere – whether I was watching sport, making dinner or cycling around town!

Good luck…