French regular verbs – past tense


French verbs

“I hate French!”

Here are the basic forms of French regular verbs in the past tense, which include the perfect (or passé composé), pluperfect, imperfect and past historic (or passé simple). All verbs end in -er, -re or -ir, and there are different endings for each that are shown here in red.

Perfect (or passé composé)

The perfect tense is used in formal written French to say someone ‘has done’ something, but they sometimes use it in conversation and casual writing in the same way we use the simple past tense (or ‘preterite’), eg ‘j’ai donné’ might mean ‘I gave’ rather than ‘I have given’ – you just need to look at the context to help you decide which is the right translation.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

J’ai donné
Tu as donné
Il/elle a donné
Nous avons donné
Vous avez donné
Ils/elles ont donné

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

J’ai vendu
Tu as vendu
Il/elle a vendu
Nous avons vendu
Vous avez vendu
Ils/elles ont vendu

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

J’ai fini
Tu as fini
Il/elle a fini
Nous avons fini
Vous avez fini
Ils/elles ont fini

Pluperfect

The pluperfect tense is used to say someone ‘had done’ something. This is common in story-writing when an event is described that happened before that particular moment in the story, eg ‘j’avais donné’ means ‘I had given’.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

J’avais donné
Tu avais donné
Il/elle avait donné
Nous avions donné
Vous aviez donné
Ils/elles avaient donné

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

J’avais vendu
Tu avais vendu
Il/elle avait vendu
Nous avions vendu
Vous aviez vendu
Ils/elles avaient vendu

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

J’avais fini
Tu avais fini
Il/elle avait fini
Nous avions fini
Vous aviez fini
Ils/elles avaient fini

Imperfect

The imperfect tense is used to say someone ‘was doing’ or ‘used to do’ something, eg ‘je donnais’ means ‘I was giving’ or ‘I used to give’.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donnais
Tu donnais
Il/elle donnait
Nous donnions
Vous donniez
Ils/elles donnaient

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vendais
Tu vendais
Il/elle vendait
Nous vendions
Vous vendiez
Ils/elles vendaient

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finissais
Tu finissais
Il/elle finissait
Nous finissions
Vous finissiez
Ils/elles finissaient

Past historic (or passé simple)

The past historic is the equivalent of the simple past tense (or preterite) in English and is used in novels and other formal writing to say someone ‘did’ something, eg ‘je donnai’ means ‘I gave’ or ‘I used to give’. It is never used in conversation, where it is replaced by the perfect tense.

Verbs ending in -er, eg donner (to give)

Je donnais
Tu donnas
Il/elle donna
Nous donnâmes
Vous donnâtes
Ils/elles donnèrent

Verbs ending in -re, eg vendre (to sell)

Je vendis
Tu vendis
Il/elle vendit
Nous vendîmes
Vous vendîtes
Ils/elles vendirent

Verbs ending in -ir, eg finir (to finish)

Je finis
Tu finis
Il/elle finit
Nous finîmes
Vous finîtes
Ils/elles finirent

 

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